Guarani1 dwelt in the forests and the hills a thousand years before the paper calendars came. The Crowned River2 clasped hands with the River that Gives Birth to the Sea3 and the forests were fed, and the hills were watered, and Guarani dwelt peacefully.
The conquistador7, arrived in, what they call, 1524, when the leaves were falling and the rivers low. He looked for gold and silver, not food nor friend. We gave him some food and we gave him some gold, and we offered some friends. But he did not like our food, and he became crazy with our gold, and we did not see how we could be friends. But a few of our young men went with him.
Then the priests came, and they brought Mary and Jesus and books. They said Jesus and Mary were like Tupa8 and Irupe9. They taught us to learn from the books. They brought crosses and statues10 and said they were like Isondu11 and Pananbi12. But we prefer the living butterflies and fireflies. When the conquistadors enslaved some of our people, the priests stood up against them, and that was good.
The state began in 1811 and in José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia13 became ruler. He made it law that Europeans must not marry Europeans, but only people of the land. So Guarani married Spaniards, and Spaniards married Africans.
There is no official data on the ethnic composition of the Paraguayan population, as the Department of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses of Paraguay does not ask about race and ethnicity in census surveys, although it does inquire about the indigenous population. According to the census of 2002, the indigenous people made up 1.7% of Paraguay’s total population. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraguay
World’s happiest place in a 21st century poll. https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/worlds-happiest-country-would-you-believe-paraguay-n110981
- indigenous inhabitants of Paraguay
- looking upstream, the river comes from mountains crowned with snow. Para is guarani for river, guai is guarani for crown
- looking downstrean, the river flowes into the sea. Para is guarani for river, guay is translated born of water
- Creator of all
- glowworms and fireflies are reincarnate ancestors visiting us by night
- butterflies are our ancestors visiting us by day
- Alex Garcia from Portugal
- the Creator of Light, residing in the Sun
- woman who fell in love with the Moon
- representing their dead
- ancestors reincarnate as glowworms
- ancestors reincarnate as butterflies
- dictator, called El Supremo, inspired by the Enlightenment and French Revolution, sought to establish a utopia based upon Rousseau’s The Social Contract