back to Map of Africa
The flag and emblem of Ethiopia are shown above.
For individual banknotes of Ethiopia, select the images above.
back to Map of Africa
The flag and emblem of Ethiopia are shown above.
For individual banknotes of Ethiopia, select the images above.
The flag and coat of arms of Tanzania are shown above.
Tanzania, the name, is a compound formed the the words Tanganyica and Zanzibar, the two progenitor states which, united, formed present day Tanzania.
The region was dominated from the Arabian peninsula in the 18th and early 19th centuries, until the Europeans took over in the late 19th century. Oman powerfully competed with other empires in the Indian ocean region from the late 1600s through the late 1800s. In 1698 Oman defeated the Portuguese at Fort Jesus, in Mombasa,1 and thereafter drove them from Zanzibar. By 1700 Oman had established a fort on the island of Zanzibar at Zanzibar City. The island of Zanzibar and much of the nearby mainland coastal regions was claimed by Oman by 1786. In 1840, Oman made Zanzibar city the capital of the empire.2 “During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade. “
Following the Berlin Conference of 1884 and 1885, Germany aggressively joined other European states in the colonization “game”. The Scramble for Africa was on. Germany and Britain, in an agreement unknown to Oman at the time,3 had divided up the central Eastern African seaboard, giving the region roughly now known as Kenya to Great Britain, and the region roughly now known as Tanganyica and Rwanda and Burundi to Germany. The sultan of Oman, residing in Zanzibar and having laid claim to the coastal region of Tanganyica, objected to this claim of African territory by Germany. Otto von Bismark, the Chancellor of Germany, ordered 5 warships to Zanzibar City, which, upon arrival, on August 7 1885, trained their guns on the Sultans palace.4 The Sultan acquiesced. In 1890, Germany and Britain agreed that Zanzibar would be a protectorate of Great Britain.
Great Britain’s involvement with Zanzibar had been growing thoughout the 1800s. Zanzibar had become the center of the slave trade in the region, and Great Britain had had a change of heart and become opposed to the practice. In 1822, Great Britain began to place pressure upon the Sultan to bring an end to the trade. A series of treaties ensued which further restricted the trade. The protectorate established in 1890 included a provision that Great Britain would have the right of approval of a new ruler upon the Sultan’s death. The Sultan died on August 25, 1896, and this provision was violated on August 26, and what has become known as The Shortest War in History, The Anglo-Zanzibar War, began.
It all happened on a Thursday morning, from 9:02 am until 9:40 am, that war commenced and concluded between Zanzibar and Great Britain. It was August 27, 1896, and has been called the “shortest recorded war in history.”5
With the defeat of Germany in WW1, the colonial dispositions changed. In 1919, the Paris Peace Conference Supreme Council ceded all of East German Africa to Britain; over the strenuous objection of Belgium. Belgium and Great Britain negotiated a side agreement, and on January 10, 1920. Rwanda and Burundi became Belgian colonies, and the largest portion of East German Africa became a British colony under the name Tanganyika. And so, the territorial stage was set for present day Tanzania.
Tanganyika became independent from Great Britain December 9, 1961. Zanzibar, having been a protectorate, not a colony, of Britain, was not granted independence, in that same sense as Tanganyika. But the British protectorate of Zanzibar was declared ended December 10, 1963. Following a tumultuous first few months, Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika April 26, 1964. The new united country was named the United Republic of Tanzania October 29, 1964. “On April 26, 1964, The Father of Nation Mwalimu Julius Nyerere and the First Zanzibar’s President Abeid Arnan Karume united Tanganyika and Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The Union was supported by what came to be known as the Articles of Union. Here is the original document of the articles as agreed by the founders of the two nations.”…6.
back to Map of Africa
The flag and coat of arms of Uganda are shown above.
The flag and emblem of Somaliland are reproduced above.
back to Map of Africa
The flag and coat of arms of Somalia are illustrated above.
back to Map of Africa
The flag and emblem of Eritrea are shown above.
back to Map of Africa
The flag and coat of arms are depicted above.
Coffee in Rwanda has been a significant industry both before and after the infamous 1990s. Coffee crops were encouraged by Germany during their colonial period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rwanda came under Belgian colonial influence following WWI and coffee growing was systematized. Coffee has continued as a prime industry for Rwandans since their 1961 independence and is a key part of their economic rejuvenation in the 21st century.
The banknote above illustrates the coffee plant, a family working the coffee fields in one of the numerous small plantations in this “land of a thousand hills”, and a woman carrying the harvested coffee.
The back of the currency is an illustration from the Rwandan countryside. Banana trees are shown on the left and lake Kivu and hills are shown on the right.
Lake Kivu, one of the African Great Lakes, covers approximately 1000 square miles.
Watutsi warriors are illustrated on the front of the 1000 franc banknote.
The Coat of arms from independence until the 21st century is on the bottom left. “Republique Rwandaise – Liberte’ – Cooperation – Progress”.
The Coat of arms was restyled in 2001, after the genocide of the 1990s.
The Watutsi, also known as Tutsi, were victimized by the Hutus in the genocide of 1994, but the hostilities went both ways for decades, whereas the animosity was ultimately but a century old. The Germans appear to have developed the so-called racial distinction between the Tutsi and the Hutu during their brief colonial enterprise, favoring the minority Tutsi for administrative positions. The distinction appears to have been only a hypothesis as no archaeological, historical nor even linguistic distinctions have been discovered since to support the distinction. The Belgians relied upon existing the Tutsi administrating structure as they commenced their colonial administration following WWI. Their rule reinforced the ethnic divide. In 1931, during the time of the eugenics movement in Europe and the United States, an ethnic identity card was issued for each Rwandan.
For story tags, see bottom of this page.
Eastern Gorillas and canoes on Lake Kivu are illustrated on the reverse of this 1988 1000 franc Rwandan banknote.
These wonderful creatures inhabit the volcano regions of Rwanda. They are vegetarians and generally eat leafy green foliage and therefore prefer the dense mountain rainforests and subalpine forests of Rwanda. The men are black furred and giant, weighing 350 to 450 pounds and standing 5’6” upright. The women are half to 2/3s their size. The old men grey noticeably with age until they are recognized as silverbacks. The silverbacks lead stable and cohesive family groups held together by long time bonds between the men and women. They are community oriented rather than territorial. The men defend their women and children, and the silverbacks will defend their clan to the death if required. Women bear children on average of once every three or four years and their time of pregnancy is about 8 1/2 months. Newborns have pinkish grey skin and begin to crawl around nine weeks. The children are weaned when they are about 3 ½ years old.
The clans are diurnal, foraging and traveling by day and sleeping by night, when they create nests usually on the ground by folding the dense vegetation over themselves. Generally, they forage in the morning and the late afternoon, preserving a the midday for a time of rest. This midday rest is a time for the building and reinforcement of relationships. Mutual grooming reinforces their social affections and keeps their fur clean from parasites. The children play, wrestling and running and somersaulting, and the silverbacks and women often join them.
They are normally gentle and quite shy. Conflicts are generally resolved by intimidating displays and threatening behaviors that rarely lead to violence. But when two clans meet, if the conflict is not resolved by threats, the silverbacks may fight to the death.
For story tags, see bottom of this page.
Zebras are beloved in Africa for their beauty. They are very social roaming in clans, called by humans “harems”, with long-lasting committed relationships. A harem consists of a stallion, several mares and their offspring. Many harems will congregate into a herd during migrations and for protection. They’ll remain together and act in coordination to defend against predators.
Herds can be seen today roaming in the grasslands of Akagera National Park near the shores of Lake Ihema in Northeast Rwanada, a region shared with giraffe, hippo, buffalo and hundreds of species of bird.
Volcanoes National Park is in Northwest Rwanda and is the first national park in all of Africa. It is dominated by five of the eight volcanoes of the Virunga Mountains. Two of the volcanoes, Karisimbi and Bisoke are illustrated on this banknote. The region, covered in rainforest and bamboo is just 100 miles or so, as the wildlife roams, from Akagera National Park.
According to Wikipedia, “Recent civil wars in Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Uganda have caused dramatic declines in all wildlife populations, including those of plains zebra. It is now extinct in Burundi.” Why is Volcanoes National ark depicted on the same 1988 banknote as the Zebra? I do not know, but the suggestion occurs to me that perhaps zebras were well known on the sides of the mountains but departed elsewhere during the war.
Lifting the flag of the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front.
The image has become a national symbol, and is now included on Eritrean currency. An interview with the photographer can be found here.
The EPLF has been noted for its egalitarian approach. 30% of its constituent fighters were women, which significantly affected the traditionally conservative paternalistic outlook of the nation.
The EPLF captured numerous Ethiopian soldiers in battle. But in contrast to the way the Ethiopians treated their captured, the EPLF did not mistreat them. The taught them the principles of the EPLF. They instructed them in world politics. They trained many of them in crafts and trades.
Eritrea consists of nine nationalities. Tigre, Tigrigna, Saho, Afar, Kunama, Nara, Bilin, Hidarb, and Rashaida. More information on this can be found on the Eritrean website here.
These nationalities are depicted in the banknotes in a series of tryptich portraits, that is, three-paneled illustrations such as in many of the classics. The artist who designed these banknotes is Mr. Clarence Holbert, the first African American to design an African banknote. He passed away January 9, 2018. His memorial was reverently attended by representatives of Eritrea, and can be read about here.
The reverse of the currencies reflect scenes from Eritrean life. As recalled by Mr. Holbert, the currency “features the everyday people of Eritrea because Eritrean President Isaias had given specific instructions that money not feature cabinet or government officials or their relatives.”
The Nakfa region, inhabited since ancient times, came under Italian control in 1890. Italy lost control during WW2, and Eritrea was “awarded” to Ethiopia as a part of a federation in 1952. In the 1960s, Ethiopia annexed Eritrea as a province. This instigated the independence movement. In 1977, the Eritrea Liberation Front laid siege to Nakfa, and, took it in their first major victory. Eight subsequent attempts at recapture failed, during which much of the above-ground town was destroyed, and during which also, the Eritreans developed an significant underground facilities. Independence was secured in 1991.
“Nakfa” is now the name of Eritrea’s currency. It is taken from the town which had become the main base of the Eritrean independence movement.
Nakfa is famous for its extensive underground entrenchments developed in the time of the resistance. Included are hospitals, printing presses, a radio station, college and factories, in addition to rings of trenches and minefields.
The following paragraph is from this blog post with this photo of the Nakfa territory. A special test for tourists is also the sites of the liberation struggle situated in bleak mountains of the Sahel, northern angle of Eritrea. Hence one must be willing to enjoy the arduous journey across the rough terrain mountains to visit these miraculous EPLF defenses, trenches, bunkers of Nakfa, Himbol and the Roras Plateaus, and the Denden terrains.
Additional reference here.
For more stories from Africa on this website, click here.
For tags from this website, see below.
Imagine, if, before South Africa was changed, Mandella had been assassinated. Imagine if Kennedy had not been assassinated, and America had been changed. Imagine if Burundi and Rwanda had changed in the 1960s, and the genocide of the 1970s and 1980s and 1990s did not happen. Imagine Prince Rwagasore not assassinated at the moment of Burundi’s independence …
But, they killed Rwagasore; and millions perished with him.
“I felt a great disturbance in the Force, as if millions of voices suddenly cried out in terror and were suddenly silenced.“
He was the oldest son of the King, heir-apparent to the kingdom stretching back 4 centuries. Briefly under colonial Germany and then for the latest 2 generations under colonial Belgium, Louis Rwagasore saw independence in his beloved country’s future. For that future, he prepared, both himself, and his nation.
He’d been educated in elite secondary schools of Rwanda by the Brothers of Charity, and in European Universities in Antwerp and Louvain. He’d prepared to forsake the throne of his fathers, and to advocate for a constitutional monarchy instead. He, an ethnic Tutsi, married an ethnic Hutu woman, to promote the cessation of ethnic rivalries.
In the 1950s he urged the Belgian vice-governor to institute a new constitution in preparation for Burundi independence. He founded a series of economic cooperatives to foster independence, but these were banned by Belgium in 1958 when they realized they threatened their colonial power. He then founded UPRONA, the Union for National Progress, Burundi’s first indigenous political party. In 1960, as head of UPRONA, he advocated for full independence from Belgium and called for civil disobedience through the boycott of Belgian stores and government taxes, for which he was placed under house arrest. But his ideas were wildly popular with the people, and, when independence came in 1962, Rwagasore was elected by a huge majority to lead his people into the future.
Rwagasroe had become the change he foresaw for his people. He became educated. He abandoned the royal life for life as the citizen of a republic. He, a tutsi, married a hutu women, to bring forth children of Burundi.
Shortly before he would enter into office, he was killed. It is thought that the murder was a conspiracy between the Belgians and the opposition party.
Although he never said it in such words that we know of, Rwagasore, we are confident to say, had been to the mountain top. There he looked out, over the Jordan, into the land of promise, the land of the future, the good land, the right land. And what did he see? We know what he saw by the man he became. He let what he saw transform him into the same image. He became husband of a Burundi woman; he became father of Burundian children, he became a citizen of the Republic of Burundi, he became a leader in Burundi, and, indeed, a leader for all humankind.
For further readings regarding this remarkable man, see here.
For more stories from the African Great Lakes Region in this website, click here.
For story tags in this website, see at the bottom of this page.
It was October 21, 1993 when President Melchior Ndadaye was assassinated. That morning the sun arose on the first democratically elected president of Burundi. That evening the darkness arose for another year of genocide. In the words of the American ambassador to Burundi:
“The bayonets thrust into President Melchior Ndadaye’s thorax, and the bullets that felled his vice president and cabinet members, critically injured the world’s newest democracy, born only 102 days before. Six million people, more than the population of Denmark mark or Ireland, and equal to the population of Israel, were suddenly thrust back into a miasma of misrule and uncertainty after a brief season of hope while the outside world took only temporary measures to stanch the bleeding.”
Ambassador Robert Krueger. From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi: Our Embassy Years during Genocide (Focus on American History Series) (Kindle Locations 489-491). Kindle Edition.”
Reverse side features Banque de la République du Burundi (Ibanki ya Republika y’Uburundi;
Burundi) building, Bujumbura
From Wikipedia, “This lake (Lake Kivu) has a chance of erupting every 1000 years.”
Okay, good to know.
Um…. WHAT ? ! !!!
Lake Kivu is illustrated on the back of our banknote from Rwanda, and enlarged in detail below that.
The light background surrounding the shield is the map of Burundi. Its shape itself is shield-like. Burundi lies immediately south of, and borders, Rwanda. Within the map is the emblem, the Coat of Arms, of Burundi. The Coat of Arms was adopted in 1966, shortly following independence. It is a shield and banner, backed by three traditional African spears. The shield presents the face of the lion. The banner presents the Motto of the Nation.
From the Constitution of Burundi:
Motto of Burundi is: Unity, Work, Progress. The emblem of the Republic is a shield charged with the lion head and three spears, the whole being surrounded by the national motto.
The three word motto is presented in French and Kirundi; the French words readily discernible to English speaking peoples, but, perhaps, with unanticipated irony. The middle word of the motto, travail, in the French, is the word common for work in English; that is “labor” in the unadorned common sense. Whereas, travail to English speaking minds is freighted with tones of suffering and even sorrow, and is sometimes used in to describe the work of a woman bringing a child to birth. I am shaking my head slowly with sadness and care as I write this, it feeling so apropos to poor Burundi.
The Intore Warrior Dancer is presented on the front of our banknote. The warriors defended the King and paraded in dance before the delighted people when returning from victory. The dancer wears the skin of a leopard and an elaborate headdress, bells on their ankles and necklace of ivory. In his right hand is a spear and in his left a representation of a shield. For a photograph and link to a fuller article, see below.
The Burundi Coat of Arms adorns the back of our banknote. The face of a lion is on the shield backed by three spears. The National Motto is presented in French on the banner and encircling Kirundi, two of the three national languages of Burundi, the other being English.
This photo is taken from the fuller article on Intore dancers here.
TEN BIRR is noted prominently left center of the front of our banknote. The Birr is the name of the unit of currency in Ethiopia and has been since the middle 1800s. “Birr” means “silver” in the local languages.
A weaver adorns the front. A lion appears behind the inscription for TEN BIRR.
Fields are plowed in the foreground with rolling hills in the background.
The Ugandan Coat of Arms features prominently on the front of our 5 shilling banknote. The coat of arms is backed by a map silhouette of Uganda.
The shield and two spears are said to represent the defense of the nation. The three images on the shield, from top to bottom represent the waves of the Lakes of Vitoria, the largest in Africa, and Albert, the endless sunshine of the land and the historic drum calling to meetings of ceremony and significance. The shield is above a green mound representing the fertility of the land, intersected by an image of the ever flowing Nile river. The shield is flanked by two birds. On the left (our right) is the crested crane, also the national bird of Uganda. On the right (our left) is the Ugandan kob, emblematic of the abundant wildlife of the land of Uganda. The banner reads “For God and for my Country”, the national motto.
The reverse of our 5 shillings banknote features a woman harvesting a rich crop of coffee beans. It has appeared on several Ugandan banknotes.
Muqdisho, as noted on the front of our banknote below the serial number at bottom left center, or Mogadishu, as known in English, translates as “the beautiful place”. It is a coastal city, the capital and largest city, of Somalia; and it is featured on our banknote. It is also know locally as Xamar.
Two views of Mogadishu are presented on this side of the banknote. The one is an aerial view of the port and the other is the waterfront.
1990, the year of our banknote, was a precipitous year for Mogadishu, perhaps the last of relative peacefulness for a long time. In 1991, Drought and Famine and Civil War would break out and leave Mogadishu ruined. Somalia and Mogadishu had been flooded with an estimated 1.5 million refugees from the recent war with Ethiopia. Siad Barre, president of Somalia since 1969, was forced to flee Mogadishu in January 1991 into exile. In 1991, May, the northern region of Somalia, north of the tip of the horn of Africa, declared its independence as the Republic of Somaliland. With the overthrow of the Said government, Somalia and Mogadishu was in the control of competing clansman, armed with the pillaged stores of Somali armaments. A massive drought began in the Summer of 1991, at least partly a direct military tactic, and was followed by devastating famine.1
The UN sent military observers in 1992 and a significant UN force arrived in December 1992 to bring stability. 15 Somali factions signed a peace agreement in the January and March 993, but by June 1993 security deteriorated and in early 1994 the UN forces withdrew.2
Our banknote is dated 1990. For those curious, the events chronicled in the Hollywood movie Black Hawk Down occurred on October 3 and 4, 1993. From Military.com, “A year before, U.S. soldiers were deployed to Somalia to support a United Nations humanitarian mission to help with a devastating famine.
Without a government in place, militia and clans were fighting among themselves for power, so President George H.W. Bush sent the troops over to help with more than 1 million people starving from the famine.”3
Hargeysa 1994 stands out top center of our banknote. Hargeysa was the capital and 1994 was the year of the first issuance of the Somaliland shilling. It was issued October 18, 1994, and about a hundred days later, January 31, 1995, the Somali shilling was banned within the borders of the new state, Somaliland.
The “Goodirka” Building housing the Supreme Court of Somaliland is featured on our 5 shilling banknote. The building is in the city of Hargeysa, the largest city in Somaliland, and well as its capital. The beautiful animal on the right is the kudu.
Camel Caravan in the foreground with the hills known as Naasa Hablood in the background. The hills are near the capital city Hargeysa, feautured on the other side of our banknote. Naaso Hablood translates as “girl’s breasts”.1
Somaliland arose out of the political conflict in 1991 that issued in the Somali Civil War.
Somaliland is “a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia. Having established its own local government in 1991, the region’s self-declared independence remains unrecognized by any country or international organization.”2
A Bountiful Harvest of Coffee is celebrated artistically on our banknote. On the left is a broad view of a well-organized farm. On the right is detail of the coffee plant and fruit. At center is a large coffee plant and at left the coffee fruit is being separated.
The zebra and giraffe adorn our banknote, and, at center is the coat of arms of Tanzania.
The central shield bears four images from top to bottom: the enflamed torch, the flag of Tanzania, a crossed axe and hoe, a spear over a pattern of waves.
The shield rests upon the image of Mount Kilimanjaro.
The shield is surrounded on the left and right with the tusks of the elephant.
The shield is upheld by a man standing upon a plant of cloves, and a woman standing upon a plant of cotton.
Beneath them is the unfurled banner with the motto of the nation, Freedom and Unity in Swahili.
The giraffe looks out at us from our banknote of Tanzania. We cannot see the totality of our graceful creature, but if we were to zoom out, we would find that we would have to zoom out more than for perhaps any other land-based living mammal. Our giraffe is, likely, a Masai giraffe, the largest subspecies of the entire giraffe family, residing in southern Kenya and, our, Tanzania. The Masai giraffe is also known as the Kilimanjaro giraffe. As Kilimanjaro is the tallest mountain in Africa, so the Masai giraffe is the tallest mammal on the earth. Our giraffe can be 19 feet tall, and, with its 6 foot long legs, can run at about 35 miles per hour..
The coat patterns vary among the various giraffe subspecies, the masai giraffe’s spots being somewhat more jagged than jagged. It is believed that no two individual’s spot patterns are identical and thus individuals may be identified.
The Masai giraffe is generally found in Tanzania and Kenya and Somalia and Ethiopia.