Africa, Earth, French West Africa, Senegal, Western Africa

Senegal – 1949

French West Africa

The CFA franc was introduced in 1945.  The letter “K appearing twice on the front of our banknote is the distinguishing mark that identifies Senegal as the country of origin.  The other countries sharing the CFA franc, with their identifying marks are: Côte d’Ivoire / Ivory Coast “A”; Benin “B”; Burkina Faso “C”; Mali “D”; Niger “H”; Togo “T” and Guinea-Bissau “S”. Senegal, as stated, has “K” as the identifying mark.1

 

French West Africa

The back of our banknote features canoes, men, and, the river.  It is thought by many that the origin of the word “Senegal” is an early word in a local dialect meaning “our canoe”.  This meaning, although disputed by some technicians, has nevertheless become popular today, being used commonly in phrases with meanings to the effect: “we are all in the same canoe.2

French West Africa was a federation of 8 states existing from 1895 until 1960.3

Cap-Vert, Senegal, enlarged image
Cap-Vert, Senegal

Senegal’s Capt-Vert projects its triangular point 4 directly into the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost point of the grand collective landmass termed Afro-Eurasia.5  Also known as Cape Verde, it is roughly equidistant between the mouths of two great rivers, the Senegal and the Gambia, about 100 kilometers from each.  These became the early colonial outposts of the Europeans.

Senegal and Gambia Rivers on either side of Cape Verde

Middle 1400s Portuguese explorers, decades before the voyage of Columbus, reached the Senegal first (being the northernmost river of the two and closer to Portugal), rounded Cape Verde and explored the Gambia second (map image6 right).  Two hundred years later, the French and the British, emerging from their own borders with global ambition, established trading posts, and then settlements, and, eventually, forts in the region, the French at the Senegal River and Cape Verde area, and the British at the Gambia river.  In the wars of the 1th and 18th centuries between the French and the British, these West African settlements changed hands again and again.  But in the late 19th century “scramble for Africa”, the French were in better position.

map showing Senegal shown surrounding The Gambia

The British found themselves occupying a relatively thin strip from the ocean, inland along the banks of the Gambia River.  France occupied the regions along the Senegal River, the region of Cape Verde, and the land completely surrounding the British on both banks of the Gambia and inland.  These boundaries remain unto this day; and that’s why the map looks the way it does.7

 

Senegal celebrates its Independence Day on April 4th.  On April 4, 1959, Senegal joined with French Sudan to form the Mali Federation, which became independent from France the following year, April 4, 1960 with the signing of a Transfer of Power Agreement.  Due to internal political differences, that federation swiftly dissolved and the two nations declared separate independences in August of the same year.  Senegal retained its name Senegal, and the former French Sudan adopted the name Mali.  Mali celebrates its Independence Day September 22, that date in 1960 being the day it emerged independent from the Mali Federation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Africa, Biafra, Earth, Nigeria, Western Africa

Biafra 5 shillings note

Biafra 5 front

The Palm Tree stands in front of the Rising Sun.  The national anthem of Biafra is “The Land of the Rising Sun”1, written by Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first president of Nigeria, and considered the father of Nigerian nationalism.

Biafra 5 back
Biafra Map, from wikipedia

The Republic of Biafra is the name of a 1960s secessionist state in Western Africa.  The Ibo people, sometimes called Igbo, predominantly occupied the coastal region of southeastern Nigeria including the delta of the mighty Niger River.2  Economic, cultural and religious tensions issued in a secessionist movement which led to the Nigerian Civil War lasting from July 1967 until January 1970.  The independence of Biafra was recognized by a number of surrounding nations and was supported by with arms from France.  Most of the rest of the world supported Nigeria’s claim to control over the region.  Nigeria was further supported with supplies of military arms from Britain and the United States.3

 

 

The international movement known as Medicins Sans Frontieres, or, Doctors Without Borders, was born in response to the crisis in Biafra.4

A fuller history can be read here.

Africa, Biafra, Earth, Nigeria, Western Africa

Biafra 1 pound note

 

Biafra 1 front

The image of the rising sun beyond the palm tree features prominently on the front of our banknote.  Biafra adopted the song The Land of the Rising Sun1 as its anthem.  The words were written by Nnamdi Azikiwe, the first president of Nigeria, and, regarded as the father of Nigerian nationalism.

Biafra 1 back

The coat of arms of Biafra is featured on the back of our banknote.  As is appropriate, the symbols are full of meaning.2

Biafra 1 back

The eagle: Sovereignty, Pride and Self-Esteem

The horn of the cow: Cultural heritage

The shield: the map of Biafra

The rising sun: Expectation

Eleven Rays of sunshine: the original 11 provinces of Biafra

Three rings: Three patriarchs of Biafrans

Two Leopards holding the shield: Defenders

The field of green: Natural resources

 

Africa, Earth, French West Africa, Western Africa

French West Africa – June 1941

French West Africa, 1941, front, 5 francs

June 3, 1941 is the date on our French West African banknote, colonies of France.

June 3, 1941, is just about one year after Germany began to effectively “colonize” France in 1940 with its invasion at the commencement of WW2.  And it’s just about 3 years before June 6, 1944, D-Day, when the Allied invasion in French Normandy commenced, leading to the Independence of France from its colonizers.

Our banknote is a glimpse into French West Africa, during the time that its colonizer was being colonized.

French West Africa, 1941, back, 5 francs

 

The back of our banknote illustrates a weaver at his trade in French West Africa,  There is a glorious tradition to the craft worldwide, and Africa is prominent.1

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Our banknote is a relic of the sins of the past.  It is testament to changing sensibilities that the story of this banknote would stun many in our modern word.  But, none the less, that same story, represented by this banknote, haunts a billion people to this day.

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French West Africa, or, in the French language of our banknote, Afrique Occidentale, is the name of the late 19th century and early 20th century administrative grouping of African states under French colonial rule.2  A common currency was utilized through much of this period.

Historical Context

European political and economic rivalries led to what has come to be known as The Scramble for Africa 3 in the concluding decades of the 1800s.  With the advances in the Age of Industrialization, the formerly challenging logistics of transportation and communication and resource development became simpler, and consequently, more far reaching.  Nations vied with one another for resources and safe trade routes and secure lines of communication.  Military bases were sought to secure those routes, such as Britain’s to its colony in India.  In addition to such hard assets, politicians coveted colonial possessions for prestige on the world stage and as negotiating chips in the world game. To avoid war over territories, Bismarck of Germany, prompted by the Portuguese and supported by the British, called a meeting of interested nations to resolve differences and competing interests.  This became known as the Berlin Conference of 1884. 4

The Berlin Conference delineated procedures by which nations could claim territory in Africa as their own colony.  In addition to recognizing several historic colonial claims, the Principle of Effective Occupation 5 was promulgated which was to have rapid impact and lasting effect on the continent.  Essentially, it would be henceforth considered insufficient to simply place one’s flag on the coast and claim an entire continent for the King as had been done by nations in the 15th and 16th centuries.  Under this Principle, it was necessary to have established some form of administration, treaties with inhabitants, policing force and other elements of occupation.

With the establishment of the Principle of Effective Occupation, the Conquest of Africa having already accelerated in the previous decade, now intensified into the Scramble for Africa.  Expeditions were launched into the interior, treaties were established and often coerced from the natural inhabitants, and settlements were established.  Within a short time essentially all of Africa was subdivided into colonial territories under European control. 6 New boundary lines, enforced by European politics, crisscrossed the continent.  These new lines had no connection to history, traditional hunting grounds, migration routes, sacred burial grounds.

21st Century

European colonialism of Africa collapsed following WW2, but the colonial boundaries remain.  The generation of leaders in Africa arising with the post war independence movements, generally adhered to the established stated boundaries in hopes of avoiding new conflicts among the peoples.  The boundaries, though, have no regard for traditional separations or commerce of the local ethnicities of the natural inhabitants of the land. This is one significant reason for separatist movements in Africa. 7

The region formerly known as French West Africa, is today occupied by the following countries: Ivory Coast, Benin, Mali, Guinea, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Togo and Nigeria.

Africa, Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa

Guinea-Bissau The Glorification of Triumph

Portuguese Guinea was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.  The Glorification of Triumph is celebrated in this beautiful banknote.

Banknote of Guniea-Bissau, 1000, back.

The beautiful artwork on the back of this banknote is the allegory named “Apoteose ao Triunfo”, which translates from the Portuguese as, the “Glorification of Triumph”.  In the foreground are men and women and children bringing forth in celebration the bounty of the land.  And in the background, as if illustrating what is in their minds as they celebrate, are universal images of triumph and glory.  In the foreground, the man standing on the right is holding an arade, a classic farming instrument of the region.  Everywhere there is bounty.  In the lower right there is a chicken and a goat.  In the center foreground there are baskets abounding with the tropical fruits of the land.  Standing on the right, a woman is holding a basket of fish, while seated on the left, one is pouring a cup of nectar.  All the while, musical instruments are being played.

1000 pesos banknote of Guinea-Bissau