Balkan Peninsula, Europe, Serbia, South East Europe

Serbia – Tesla Powers the World

Nikola Tesla, seated, holding his wireless lightbulb.  Yes, indeed, it has no connecting wires.  One could place it on a desk, or hold it in the hand and it would remain lit, with no connecting wires.  With all other light bulbs wire based, Tesla’s bulbs seem like something from outer space and the distant future.  And this is from the late 19th century and early 20th century.  Of course, there was a Tesla coil nearby.

 

 

In 1960, the name”Tesla” was assigned to the unit of Magnetic Flux Density by the Conference on Weights and Measures.  “A particle, carrying a charge of one coulomb, and moving perpendicularly through a magnetic field of one tesla, at a speed of one metre per second, experiences a force with magnitude one newton, according to the Lorentz force law. The tesla can also be expressed as shown in out banknote, 1 Tesla equals 1 weber per meter squared.

The equation adorns the front of this 100 dinari banknote from Serbia.  Coincidently, 100 T is the magnetic field strength of the average white dwarf star, which is considered the destiny of our sun.

 

Niagra Falls fascinated Nikola Tesla from his youth in Serbia.  He told his uncle that he wanted to place a wheel under the massive water falls to harness its power.

In America, Tesla designed the first hydroelectric plant and supervised its installation at Niagra Falls in 1895.  Thus the electrification of the United States, and indeed, the world, commenced.

 

 

The introduction of Tesla’s motor from 1888 onwards initiated what is sometimes referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution, making possible both the efficient generation and long distance distribution of electrical energy using the alternating current transmission system, also of Tesla’s invention (1888).  from here.

 

Regarding the image of the dove on our banknote, the following, by Tesla’s biographer, is selected from this website.

Nikola Tesla fed and cared for several pigeons, among a beautiful white dove with brown-grey tips on her wings was singled out. According to John O`Neil, the author of Tesla`s biography, the inventor loved this dove like he has not loved anyone else. The author claims that Tesla explained to him the connection.
Yes, I loved that pigeon, I loved her as a man loves a woman, and she loved me. If the pigeon became ill, he would nurse her back to health and as long as she needed him and he could have her, nothing else mattered and there was purpose in his life.
One night as he was lying in bed, she flew in through the window and he knew right away that she had something important to tell him – she was dying.
– And then, as I got her message, there came a light from her eyes – powerful beams of light. Yes, it was a real light, a powerful, dazzling, blinding light, a light more intense than I had ever produced by the most powerful lamps in my laboratory – Tesla told his biographer.
After the dove`s death, something disappeared from Tesla`s life. He knew his life`s work was done for good.

 

Balkan Peninsula, Europe, Greece, South East Europe

Greece – 1944 – Prelude to Civil War

 

Greece, September 9, 1944, 200 million drachmas. The image is from the Parthenon, two thousand years before …..

Above the numeral 200 is the units of the currency of Greece, “drachma”, or, plural, “drachmai”.  Beneath the number 200, in the middle of this banknote, are the two words which may be translated as follows.  “Diakosia” equals “two hundred” in Greek.  “Ekatommusia” equals “million” in Greek.  The date is September 9, 1944.  Two hundred million anything is a quantity beyond the intuition of most everyday people.

The Nazis withdrew from Greece in this month, but left hyperinflation remained; and soon the whole would be engulfed in a civil war that would be considered the first proxy war of the cold war era, the first of many.

 

Greece, 1944, 200 million drachmas

Readers with minds familiar with such numbers, hyperinflation, and hyperinflation’s societal ramifications; will rapidly move in their thoughts to the distress of the peoples who had no choice but to use these banknotes in their everyday lives.

From this website is the following 4 paragraphs beginning at our banknote’s date:

In September, 1944, after Germany’s withdrawal from Greece, British troops landed there. Greeks sniped at British soldiers, and the British arrested what was said to be 15,000 people and shipped them to a camp in a desert area in Eritrea. The Greek resistance retaliated by kidnapping 15,000 monarchists from Athens and marched them out of the city. Roughly 4,000 of the monarchists died during the march, and the Resistance lost support.
          Greece emerged from German occupation and British intervention with a civil war. Britain and the US supported Greece’s monarchical government. The rebels on the other side of the civil war included Communists. Greece’s king since 1947, Paul the First, was a determined enemy of the Communists, and he had the support of moderates.
          The war began winding down in 1948. The Communists in Greece were split between Stalinists and supporters of Yugoslavia’s Josip Tito. Stalin, meanwhile, was giving the resistance hardly any material support. He was unenthusiastic about the rebel cause in Greece – in keeping with an agreement between Stalin and Churchill during the world war. By September 1949 most of the rebels surrendered or escaped over the border into Albania, and the Albanian government, presumably with Soviet approval, prohibited the Greek rebels from launching military operations into Greece. The civil war had ended.
          Writes Elena Panaritis in 2011:
It was the bloodiest and most devastating war in the history of Greece considering the number of lives lost. The death toll reached nearly 10% of the Greek population.

***********

And now, let’s consider the image on our banknote, the Parthenon.  Towards the conclusion of the horriblest of wars, War World II, and, yet, at the beginning of “the bloodiest and most devastating war in the history of Greece”, our banknote is published; and, this image from the Parthenon is selected, constructed two thousand years previous.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balkan Peninsula, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe, South East Europe

Bosnia Herzegovina – The Ghost of the Mostar Bridge

 

The Mostar stone bridge is featured in the ghostly image on the backside of this banknote, dated August 15, 1994.  It is enlarged below, where it appears even more ghost-like.

Our banknote is dated August 15, 1994; whereas the bridge, illustrated on our banknote, was reported destroyed, in this article, dated November 10, 1993, 9 months earlier.

The bridge dates from 1566, 450 years, four and a half centuries.  It is a Bridge of Time.  It connects us today to our History, lest we forget.  And it connects our forebearer builders to their future; imagine their pride.    It is a Bridge of Life.  It provides the only route to drinking water for the townspeople.

Sixty artillery shells killed the bridge on November 8, 1993.  Ghostlike, this image hovers above our banknote, a haunting reminder of beauty lost, a Specter of war.

It is rebuilt now, and the memories of that nightmare are fading.  The bridge is replaced.  It looks almost the same, but it is not the same.  People are crossing the bridge again, but they are not the same.  Money replaced the bridge, but not the war lost lives.  Money repaired the bridge, but not the war scarred psyches of the survivors.

“From whence come wars and fightings among you?”  From whence, indeed.  Like a demon from the Abyss, War periodically seeks to walk among the living.  It is a great evil; to be resisted with great effort.

 

For a fine video about it’s reconstruction as a UNESCO world heritage site, please click this youtube link.