Uncategorized

Angola 2012 – 5 Kwanza – Year 2012

Angola, 5 kwanza banknote, dated 2012

Conjoined busts of Jose Eduardo dos Santos and Antonio Agostinho Neto, two presidents of Angola.
António Agostinho Neto (17 September 1922 – 10 September 1979) served as the 1st President of Angola (1975–1979), having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the war for independence (1961–1974). Until his death, he led the MPLA in the civil war (1975–2002). Known also for his literary activities, he is considered Angola’s preeminent poet. His birthday is celebrated as National Heroes’ Day, a public holiday in Angola.1
José Eduardo dos Santos, born 28 August 1942)[2] is an Angolan politician who served as President of Angola from 1979 to 2017. As President, José Eduardo dos Santos was also the commander in chief of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and President of the People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the party that has ruled Angola since it gained independence in 1975. He was the second-longest-serving president in Africa, surpassed only by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea, who took power less than two months before dos Santos.2

Angola, 5 kwanza banknote, 2012

The Ruacana waterfalls are featured on the back of our banknote.  The Ruacana falls are on the Kuene river which forms much of the border between Angola to the North and its neighbor Namibia to the South.

 

Angola Coat of Arms

The Angola coat of arms is featured on our banknote.

Central is the machete and the hoe, symbols of revolution and agricultural workers.

The star rising represents progress.

The right half of the circle is a cog, or gear, symbolic of industrial workers.  The left half of the circle is a wreath of maize and cotton leaves, symbolic of agricultural workers.

The banner is Portuguese for Republic of Angola.

Angola celebrates its independence day November 11.  November 11, 1975 is the date of independence from Portugal.

 

Africa, Earth, Eastern Africa, Horn of Africa, Somalia, Uncategorized

Somalia – 1000 Shillings – Year 1990 – Muqdisho

Somalia 1990

Muqdisho, as noted on the front of our banknote below the serial number at bottom left center, or Mogadishu, as known in English, translates as “the beautiful place”.  It is a coastal city, the capital and largest city, of Somalia; and it is featured on our banknote.  It is also know locally as Xamar.

Somalia 1990

Two views of Mogadishu are presented on this side of the banknote.  The one is an aerial view of the port and the other is the waterfront.

 

1990, the year of our banknote, was a precipitous year for Mogadishu, perhaps the last of relative peacefulness for a long time.  In 1991, Drought and Famine and Civil War would break out and leave Mogadishu ruined.  Somalia and Mogadishu had been flooded with an estimated 1.5 million refugees from the recent war with Ethiopia.  Siad Barre, president of Somalia since 1969, was forced to flee Mogadishu in January 1991 into exile.  In 1991, May, the northern region of Somalia, north of the tip of the horn of Africa, declared its independence as the Republic of Somaliland.  With the overthrow of the Said government, Somalia and Mogadishu was in the control of competing clansman, armed with the pillaged stores of Somali armaments.  A massive drought began in the Summer of 1991, at least partly a direct military tactic, and was followed by devastating famine.1 The UN sent military observers in 1992 and a significant UN force arrived in December 1992 to bring stability.  15 Somali factions signed a peace agreement in the January and March 993, but by June 1993 security deteriorated and in early 1994 the UN forces withdrew.2

*******************************

Our banknote is dated 1990.  For those curious, the events chronicled in the Hollywood movie Black Hawk Down occurred on October 3 and 4, 1993.  From Military.com, “A year before, U.S. soldiers were deployed to Somalia to support a United Nations humanitarian mission to help with a devastating famine.
Without a government in place, militia and clans were fighting among themselves for power, so President George H.W. Bush sent the troops over to help with more than 1 million people starving from the famine.”3

Asia, Laos, Mainland Southeast Asia - Indochina, Southeast Asia, Uncategorized

Laos – Military Might (1979 era, 20 kips)

It is 1979 in Laos; and our featured banknote is published.

The national emblem on the banknote below, circular on the left, displays the hammer and sickle in the midst of traditional Laotian scenes.  An artillery tank and a river gunboat flank a column of infantry marching towards the viewer.

750 years of monarchy ended with the Laotian civil war in 1975; and out banknote was issued just four years later.  A new regime was in power, and their ideology adhered to communism’s ideals.  Their banknote announces a readiness to defend themselves.

 

Laos 20 kip 1979 back

It was a bitter time in was a confusing era.  Laos had transitioned from colonialism to independence in perhaps the worst way possible; they had become a pawn in a proxy war of new Cold War superpowers.

The ancient peoples of Laos became a colony to France in the late 19th century.  French control continued into WW2 until Japanese power overran most of the Indochinese peninsula.  With Japan’s defeat imminent, Laos proclaimed independence in 1945.  But defeated France, rejuvenated through the allied victory in WW2 in 1945, moved to reassert its power and reestablish its colonial rule in Laos and the surrounding regions.  Laos resisted but it was not until nine years later, in 1954, when France abandoned all claims to Laos.

That 9 year period saw the empowering of communist Soviet Union through their detonation of an atomic bomb in 1949 and the victory of the communist party in China under Mao in 1949.

The United States thought appropriate to take a stand against communism in Laos’ neighbor, Vietnam, about this time.  US foreign policy became known as “containment”.  In 1958, North Vietnam invaded Laos to establish the Ho Chi Minh trail, the logistical supply route between North Vietnam and South Vietnam.  With the escalation of the Vietnam War, this supply route became the subject of intense military fighting, and this region of Laos became the subject of possibly the most intense bombing in history.

To much of the world, Laos was an unknown nation.  Centered in the middle of the Indochinese peninsula, Burma and Thailand on its left, Vietnam on its right, Cambodia below and China above, to much of the world, Laos remained lost in the monsoon nourished jungles, without access to the Sea, unknown to the modern world.

The other side of our banknote highlights ambitions in the textile industry.  Massive rolls of cloth are being manufactured by modern machinery in this tribute to a growing manufacturing base.

 

Laos 20 kip 1979 front (2)

 

From this industry post: Growth in the Lao textile and garment industry has been impressive from a base of only two companies in 1990 to 116 in 2006 employing 30,000 workers. Laos became a market-oriented economy in the mid-1980s, meaning it had a short learning curve to pick up the basics about the industry.

From a WTO report (approximately year 2004): The textile and garment industry is of great importance to the Lao economy. Currently, the industry comprises ninety-six factories and employs more than 25,000 workers. In 2003, garment exports, valued at US$115 million, accounted for approximately a third of total exports, second to electricity. Laos exports ready-made garments to forty-two countries.