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Libya

the story of libya

Libya, an ancient name, an ancient habitation, a region known to civilization since written history began…. for more on Libya, continue reading below. See Northern Africa and Africa for regions in which Libya is embedded.

by the beginning of the 3rd century AD the area began to be known as regio tripolitania,

in 1934 the country became known as Libya

tripoli

carthage, the Roman era

tripolitania, the Ottoman era

Libya, the western era

the six eras according to wikipedia: The history of Libya comprises six distinct periods: Ancient Libya, the Roman era, the Islamic era, Ottoman rule, Italian rule, and the Modern era. 1

The Phoenician Carthaginian era The Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials.[3][4] By the 5th century BCE, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, Carthage, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea (later Tripoli), Libdah (later Leptis Magna) and Sabratha. These cities were in an area that was later called Tripolis, or “Three Cities”, from which Libya’s modern capital Tripoli takes its name.

The Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials.[3][4] By the 5th century BCE, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, Carthage, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea (later Tripoli), Libdah (later Leptis Magna) and Sabratha. These cities were in an area that was later called Tripolis, or “Three Cities”, from which Libya’s modern capital Tripoli takes its name.

In 630 BCE, the Ancient Greeks colonized Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene.[5] Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as CyrenaicaBarce (later Marj); Euhesperides (later Berenice, present-day Benghazi); Taucheira (later Arsinoe, present-day Taucheria); Balagrae (later Bayda and Beda Littoria under Italian occupation, present-day Bayda); and Apollonia (later Susa), the port of Cyrene.[6] Together with Cyrene, they were known as the Pentapolis (Five Cities). Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the Greek world, and was famous for its medical school, learned academies, and architecture. The Greeks of the Pentapolis resisted encroachments by the Ancient Egyptians from the East, as well as by the Carthaginians from the West.

The Roman era corresponds …..

After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not occupy immediately Tripolitania (the region around Tripoli), but left it under control of the kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection.[7]Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 BCE and joined it to Crete as a Roman province. During the Roman civil wars Tripolitania (still not formally annexed) and Cyrenaica sustained Pompey and Marc Antony against respectively Caesar and Octavian.[7][8] The Romans completed the conquest of the region under Augustus, occupying northern Fezzan (“Fasania”) with Cornelius Balbus Minor.[9] As part of the Africa Novaprovince, Tripolitania was prosperous,[7] and reached a golden age in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, when the city of Leptis Magna, home to the Severan dynasty, was at its height

Regardless, for more than 400 years Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were part of a cosmopolitan state whose citizens shared a common language, legal system, and Roman identity. Roman ruins like those of Leptis Magna and Sabratha, extant in present-day Libya, attest to the vitality of the region, where populous cities and even smaller towns enjoyed the amenities of urban life—the forum, markets, public entertainments, and baths—found in every corner of the Roman Empire. Merchants and artisans from many parts of the Roman world established themselves in North Africa, but the character of the cities of Tripolitania remained decidedly Punic and, in Cyrenaica, Greek. Tripolitania was a major exporter of olive oil,[12] as well as a center for the trade of ivory and wild animals[12] conveyed to the coast by the Garamantes, while Cyrenaica remained an important source of wines, drugs, and horses. The bulk of the population in the countryside consisted of Berber farmers, who in the west were thoroughly “romanized” in language and customs.[13] Until the 10th century the African Romance remained in use in some Tripolitanian areas, mainly near the Tunisian border.[14]

The arab era began as follows: In 647 an army of 40,000 Arabs, led by Abdullah ibn Saad, the foster-brother of Caliph Uthman, penetrated deep into Western Libya and took Tripoli from the Byzantines definitively

The Ottoman era began with the conquest of Triploi in 1551 by the Otooman Truks. The region was known then as Triploitania. early in the era, Tripoli was administered by a regent appounted directly from Constantinople, the great center of the Ottoman Empire. As the centruies passed , triploitania ws increasingly neglected and left to less and less overlordship, and the things deterioriated. 1600s an included the first foreign wars of the fledgling Unites states under Thomas Jefferson, The first and second barbary wars, and gives us a colorful histry of the barbary coast and the barbay pirates. it was a rough and not well goverened era with frequent coups and for long periods of time a ruller rarely remained in power more than a year. Piracy became a key economic plan.

The Colonial era began with Italian rule and ended with allied occupation in ww2 and until independence in 1951. Italian Rule corresponds to the age of colonialism and the scramble for Africa. In 1912 Italy took over the terrotiry which became nown as Italian North Africa thrugh WW1. In 1934, Italy resurrected the ancient name, Libya, by which the Greeks called the entire northern edge of the continent west of Egypt.

The Modern era might be called the american century or the age of western civilization. the modern era began with the independence in December 24, 1951. It was the post WW2 era in which colonial relationships were being dissolved around the world.

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Footnotes

  1. History of Libya, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Libya