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Tanzania

The flag and coat of arms of Tanzania are shown above.

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Tanzania, the name, is a compound formed the the words Tanganyica and Zanzibar, the two progenitor states which, united, formed present day Tanzania.

For specific stories, select the banknote images below. For general history, read further below.

Zanzibar …

The region was dominated from the Arabian peninsula in the 18th and early 19th centuries, until the Europeans took over in the late 19th century. Oman powerfully competed with other empires in the Indian ocean region from the late 1600s through the late 1800s. In 1698 Oman defeated the Portuguese at Fort Jesus, in Mombasa,1 and thereafter drove them from Zanzibar. By 1700 Oman had established a fort on the island of Zanzibar at Zanzibar City. The island of Zanzibar and much of the nearby mainland coastal regions was claimed by Oman by 1786. In 1840, Oman made Zanzibar city the capital of the empire.2During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade.

Tanganyika …

Following the Berlin Conference of 1884 and 1885, Germany aggressively joined other European states in the colonization “game”. The Scramble for Africa was on. Germany and Britain, in an agreement unknown to Oman at the time,3 had divided up the central Eastern African seaboard, giving the region roughly now known as Kenya to Great Britain, and the region roughly now known as Tanganyica and Rwanda and Burundi to Germany. The sultan of Oman, residing in Zanzibar and having laid claim to the coastal region of Tanganyica, objected to this claim of African territory by Germany. Otto von Bismark, the Chancellor of Germany, ordered 5 warships to Zanzibar City, which, upon arrival, on August 7 1885, trained their guns on the Sultans palace.4 The Sultan acquiesced. In 1890, Germany and Britain agreed that Zanzibar would be a protectorate of Great Britain.

Zanzibar …

Great Britain’s involvement with Zanzibar had been growing thoughout the 1800s. Zanzibar had become the center of the slave trade in the region, and Great Britain had had a change of heart and become opposed to the practice. In 1822, Great Britain began to place pressure upon the Sultan to bring an end to the trade. A series of treaties ensued which further restricted the trade. The protectorate established in 1890 included a provision that Great Britain would have the right of approval of a new ruler upon the Sultan’s death. The Sultan died on August 25, 1896, and this provision was violated on August 26, and what has become known as The Shortest War in History, The Anglo-Zanzibar War, began.

It all happened on a Thursday morning, from 9:02 am until 9:40 am, that war commenced and concluded between Zanzibar and Great Britain. It was August 27, 1896, and has been called the “shortest recorded war in history.”5

Tanganyika …

With the defeat of Germany in WW1, the colonial dispositions changed. In 1919, the Paris Peace Conference Supreme Council ceded all of East German Africa to Britain; over the strenuous objection of Belgium. Belgium and Great Britain negotiated a side agreement, and on January 10, 1920. Rwanda and Burundi became Belgian colonies, and the largest portion of East German Africa became a British colony under the name Tanganyika. And so, the territorial stage was set for present day Tanzania.

Tanzania …

Tanganyika became independent from Great Britain December 9, 1961. Zanzibar, having been a protectorate, not a colony, of Britain, was not granted independence, in that same sense as Tanganyika. But the British protectorate of Zanzibar was declared ended December 10, 1963. Following a tumultuous first few months, Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika April 26, 1964. The new united country was named the United Republic of Tanzania October 29, 1964. “On April 26, 1964, The Father of Nation Mwalimu Julius Nyerere and the First Zanzibar’s President Abeid Arnan Karume united Tanganyika and Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The Union was supported by what came to be known as the Articles of Union. Here is the original document of the articles as agreed by the founders of the two nations.”…6.

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Footnotes

  1. Mombassa is now a major city in Kenya, the country just north of present day Tanzania,
  2. timeline is approximate, see wikipedia
  3. note to mention the natural inhabitants
  4. wikipedia
  5. wikipedia Anglo-Zanzibar War
  6. for the document, see the document linked here.